Clinical chemistry also known as chemical pathology , clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is an applied form of biochemistry not to be confused with medicinal chemistry , which involves basic research for drug development. The discipline originated in the late 19th century with the use of simple chemical reaction tests for various components of blood and urine. In the many decades since, other techniques have been applied as science and technology have advanced, including the use and measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry , electrophoresis , and immunoassay.
An arterial-blood gas ABG test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. An ABG test requires that a small volume of blood be drawn from the radial artery with a syringe and a thin needle ,  but sometimes the femoral artery in the groin or another site is used. The blood can also be drawn from an arterial catheter. An ABG test measures the blood gas tension values of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen PaO2 , and the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide PaCO2 , and the blood's pH. In addition, the arterial oxygen saturation SaO2 can be determined. Such information is vital when caring for patients with critical illnesses or respiratory disease. Therefore, the ABG test is one of the most common tests performed on patients in intensive-care units. In other levels of care , pulse oximetry plus transcutaneous carbon-dioxide measurement is a less invasive, alternative method of obtaining similar information. An ABG test can also measure the level of bicarbonate in the blood.
The Sysmex XE is a haematology automated analyser , used to quickly perform full blood counts and reticulocyte counts. It is made by the Sysmex Corporation. It can be run on its own, or connected to a blood film making and staining unit. Racks of blood go in on a tray on the right, and come out the left side. The racks hold ten 4.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle , or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test , are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease , mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse. A venipuncture is useful as it is a minimally invasive way to obtain cells and extracellular fluid plasma from the body for analysis. Blood flows throughout the body, acting as a medium that provides oxygen and nutrients to tissues and carries waste products back to the excretory systems for disposal. Consequently, the state of the bloodstream affects or is affected by, many medical conditions.